How do I Deal with a Combination of a Stain and Etching?

Finally, we may have a combination of a stain with etching. For example, if some red wine is spilled on an absorbent polished limestone, the acidity of the wine (acetic acid) will etch (corrode) the surface on contact, while the dark color of the wine will stain the stone when it is absorbed. In such a case, first you remove the stain by poulticing (hydrogen peroxide) and then repair the etching by refinishing the surface.